Don Cass

Course Outline

CHEMISTRY OF FOODS & COOKING (SPRING 2009)

This course is designed to introduce students to the basic concepts of chemistry in the context of food. After a brief introduction to biochemistry (why we eat), the course will work through different foods, roughly in the order that humans are thought to have exploited them. Topics will include their history, cultural significance & how their molecular structure can explain how different methods of preparation affect their nutritional and aesthetic characteristics. Each class will be based around kitchen experiments which illustrate chemical concepts. Evaluation will be based on a midterm take-home problem set and each student’s compilation of a cook-book of recipes for 15 different food types, each of which includes a discussion of how the recipe reflects the chemical principles discussed in the class. Main text: McGee’s On Food & Cooking Introductory. Class limit 15. ES

TENTATIVE OUTLINE:

#

Topics

Types of Foods

Topics

Activities/Recipes

FF = how to read a FF

McGee readings

Good Eats

1

Why we eat 1

Fats/rancidity/chol.

Carbos

Proteins & AAs

Vitamins

Minerals

“Static” as steady states

Molec struc & reactive. NAT software;

Dehydration,

fat extraction, Br2 test, iodine #, vitamin C titration, cholesterol tests, fat scale

792-809

15-3c butter

2

Why we eat 2

Energy sources

Energy needs & sources & O2 protection

KEGG

Blood sugar, Calorimetry

815-818

3

Why we cook

Safety, increased nutrition, flavors – vapor pressure Vitamin C & cooking

Smell & taste (herbs)

Color

Vit C vs cooking

ID purees without smelling

Caramelization & Maillard reactions

Herbs & Spices

Taste vs smell tests?

# of taste buds

Dcolors

Purdue Sensory eval of foods

Glow-germ

657

778-779

387-433

6c1 = condiments

18-2a herbs

18-2b pepper

18-2c vanilla

4

How we cook

Dry & Wet methods

Microwaves

conductivity, density, thermal diffusivity Potato heat transfer Oven T;

times to roast vs boil vs fry carrot

try fresh vs old oil; frying at different temperatures

follow heat into potato

777-791

50mya grasping, color-seeing diurnal fruit & veggie eaters:

5

Plants: Roots & Under-ground stems

Potatoes,

carrots, parsnips, beets, turnips; rutabaga; horseradish

(mealy vs waxy; Starch à sugar;, solanine; baked, mashed, oils for fried, sweet) (colors; pH indicators);

frying different types & densities of potatoes

potato + light à green??

Fry cold vs not cold potato

FF: potato chips

FF: Roasted beet & orange salad

FF: Potato Gratin

Mashed

243-290

301-310

5a2 & 6b3=potatoes

14-2a carrots

14-2b beets

14-2c potatoes

6

Plants: Bulbs & Stems

Onions, garlic, leeks  radishes, asparagus, celery, fiddleheads, rhubarb, sprouts

Tearing , methanthiol, psoralens

DTaste after sweating or sautéing onions Onionsgarlic  (chicken w garlic & shallots ) Vichyssoise

313-318

3c3=garlic, 11c1=leeks 5b3=onion

7

Stocks & sauces

Starch based white, brown, béchamel

Fat based mayo, hollandaise

Making & breaking emulsions:

Oil/vinegar ratios;

with mustard?

588-644

15-3a mayo

15-3b sauces

8

Plants: Leaves

Lettuce, cabbage, spinach, chard, dandelion

Salad dressings;  Coleslaw

defensive glycosides

Ethylene & ripening

Respiration rates & spoilage;

Measure respiration CO2

Green bags

Keeping time vs density

318-325

6b1=lettuce,

11c2=greens

6b2, 8c2 =cabbage

18-1a spinach

9

Plants: Flowers & Fruits as veggies

Broccoli, cauliflower, eggplant artichokes, eggplant, avocado, beans, tomatoes, peppers, corn, squash

Flatulence

Pressure cooker

Dbp with salt?

Blanching

Cook with acid or base

Cook with top on or off

Exp green tom to banana

FF: sauteed green beans

FF: Glazed zucchini

FF: Bean & squash stew

FF: Cauliflower soup

326-341

6c3=artichokes

4a1,6c1 = tomato,

8c3=squash, 2a2=corn,

8c1 mushrooms

6c2 eggplant

13-3 olives

6c2=avocado

17-3a avocado

10

Plants: fruits as fruits

Lemons  stop oxidation

Allergies

Blueberry pie color

Flambed bananas

FF:Lemon marmalade

FF:Candied citrus peel

FF:Strawberry soup

350-384

7b1=apples

7b2=strawberries

7b3=bananas 12c1=melon

17-1b peaches

9mya larger S/V small primates need more energy than large apes

= more energy from an anaerobic caecum & more [energy] = eggs? or meat?

11

Eggs

Hard cooked, poached, fried, scrambled, omelets, quiche, crème brulee, mousse, Soufflé

Protein coagulation

Discoloration

Changes with time

Leave next to onions & then cook

Boil time à yolk greenness

Different ways to boil

Boil in oven

Mayonnaise

Hollandaise

Custards

Eggs benedict

FF GG dressing

FF Chocolate pots

FF Lemon curd tart

68-117

2b2=eggs

7a2=omelets

1.5mya homo erectus= butchering                       320kya Bilzingsleben =abstract thought

100kya neanderthals=special hunting sites          50kya cro magnon = fire to roast meat

12

Meat

Collagen & gelatin

Cooking different cuts

Test marinades

FF: Mushroom pot roast

118-166

3b1=roasts

3b2=potroast; 3b3=grilling

1b2, 7c1=steak

2a1=ground meat

1b1=pork

4b2=chops

14-3a meatballs

14-3b&c tenderloin

15-2c cube steak

18-1b stew

13

Poultry & Fish

(MABE 2 DAYS?)

Lemons& fish

Omega fatty acids

Lemon juice & smell

FF: SALMON ON LEEKS & CABBAGE or braised with leeks

FF: Baked fish with potatoes and artichokes

FF: Chicken braised with green olives & thyme

139-141

181-242

1b3=chicken

11b1=coq au vin

3c2=fried chicken

3c1=duck

1a1 = turkey 1a2 = turkey leftovers

17-2a gravy

17-2b stuffing

17-2c fried turkey

15-2a picatta & kiev

8b1-3=ocean edibles

11b2 = pouch fish

3a2=tuna, 3a3=salmon, bass

4c1 = mussels 4c2=clams 4c3=poaching

8b1=lobster 8b2=crab 8b3=shrimp

14-1 fish fry, shellfish

14-1a fish fry

14-1b oysters

14-1c scallops

15-2b flounder

30kya occupation of wider habitats = storing food for times of shortage

14

Keeping food

(NOT SURE F DO)

Plastic permeability

Osmotic pressure

Freezing rates;

Pickles

Jams & jellies

166-178

2a3=pickle

3a1=smoking fish

4b1=ham

7a1=bacon

12a3=jams

? years ago animal husbandry

15

Milk & Cheese

Whole, 2%, skim, buttermilk

Homogenization

Liq N2 ice cream

Cheese making

Fondue

8-67

1c3=ice cream 2c3=cheesecake

5a3=macs&cheese

5b1=grilled cheese 5b2=cheese souffle

6a2=yogurt

9b1=banana split

12b3=pudding

13-3 olives, cheese

16-2c milk

18-3c ice cream

17-3c flan

10kya climate change, natufians & agricultural grains

16

Grains

(MAYBE 2 DAYS?)

Rice

Bread

Gluten & leavenings

retrograded fried rice

FF: Artichoke rissotto

452-483

515-550

10a1=grits  10a2=bulghar couscous

6a1=oats

10a3=rice pilaf

9a1-3=flour power

10c3=bread 10c1=sandwiches 10c2=gyros 12a2=toast

17

Cakes, pies & pasta

Pasta

FF: Macs & cheese

FF: Broccoli or roasted asparagus lasagna

FF: Polenta

550-579

1a3 = fruitcake

2c2=angelfood

5c1 = pie

5c2=cake 5c3=icing

9c1=piecrust  12c2=cobbler

11a1=pasta 4a3=ravioli

18

Legumes & nuts

Soups

Pressure cooking, flatulence

Pectin & pH

Beano & flatulence

483-513

11a2=beans,

10b=soups

16-3a nuts

16-3b lentils

16-3c tofu

11c3=peas

19

Sweets

Colligative properties

Crystallization

Fudge

645-713

5c3=icing

9b2=candy 9b3=fudge

12a=granola bars

12b2=Halloween

1c2, 2c1, 12b1=chocolate

20

Other drugs: caffeine & alcohol

Toxicity testing

713-776

2b1=coffee

13-2 beer & bartending

18-3a coffee

Some good references besides On Food & Cooking 2nd ed. McGee:

Food Chemistry 3rd ed. Belitz, Grosch & Schieberle: the most technical of the bunch; a good library reference

How Cooking Works Rosenthal & Shinagel: simpler, but with recipes

Twinkie Deconstructed Ettlinger (OK, it=s not real cooking)

Molecular Gastronomy: Exploring the Science of Flavor This: lots of techniques with stuff like liquid nitrogen

Cookwise: The Hows & Whys of Successful Cooking Corriher: the Good Eats lady – recipes & explanations

The Cookbook Decoder or Culinary Alchemy Explained Grosser – he=s a chemist – as recipes & explanations

The Science of Cooking Barham – he=s a physicist!

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